The vocational training system in Mozambique
We at the FHF have looked into the question of how the education system in Mozambique works and whether it is regulated by law. We are sure that you as a donor will be interested in this topic, therefore we have prepared a small contribution which we would like to share with you.
The Mozambican Vocational Training Act was reformed in Mozambique in 2016 and came into force in 2018. According to this law, ANEP (Autoridade Nacional de Educação Profissional) was appointed National Authority for Vocational Education and Training. The ANEP is thus responsible for the certification of vocational training graduates, the approval of curricula and the scheduling of final examinations.
The law applies to most vocational schools that focus on the training of professionals in agriculture, electrics, welding, tourism and hotels, oil and Gas. In the coming years, the Ministry of Economy and Technology, Higher Education and Vocational Training (MCTESTP Ministério da Ciencia e Tecnologia, Ensino Superior e Técnico) expects to invest over 62 million euros in the rehabilitation and modernisation of institutions and technical schools.
Technical and vocational education is currently divided into two levels: primary and secondary, and is organised by sector (trade, industry and agriculture). Each level lasts 3 years.
The prerequisite for admission to basic training is completion of 7th grade.
The prerequisite for secondary education is the completion of the 10th grade or the completion of three years of basic training.
Vocational education and training is in a phase of change, in which the introduction of a modular education system at both primary and secondary level is in the foreground, which will lead to different types of diplomas, which can be seen in the list of diplomas.
Basic vocational training takes three years, but because modules are taught, a module can be completed after one year or six months and pupils can leave the VET institution with a certificate and be integrated directly into the labour market. The modular training system is well adapted to the living conditions of Mozambicans. Because the financial and family situation can change very quickly, flexibility in training is a very important aspect. After completing a module, trainees can drop out and, if necessary, continue their training in another federal state. As the country does not have a functioning social system, it is important that young people are quickly integrated into the formal labour market so that they can make a living for themselves and their families.
Listing of diplomas
Basic Level: Qualifications (Nivel Basico)
- Certificado Ocupacional 1 (CO1)
- Certificado Ocupacional 2 (CO2)
- Certificado Vocacional 1 (CV1)
- Certificado Vocacional 2 (CV2)
Middle level: qualifications (Nível Médio)
- Certificado Ocupacional 3 (CO3)
- Certificado Ocupacional 4 (CO4)
- Certificado Ocupacional 5 (CO5)
- Certificado Vocational 3 (CV3)
- Certificado Vocacional 4 (CV4)
- Certificado Vocacional 5 (CV5)
Each module qualifies for access to the next level. Professional certificates do not give access to higher education. Only the Certificado Vocational (CV5) degree gives access to higher education.
A major challenge is to develop a uniform curriculum in order to bring the quality of education on a national level. To ensure the quality of vocational training centres, all heads of vocational training institutions must hold an academic degree. In addition, a certificate of qualification for school directors should be available.
The trainers of vocational training centres and vocational schools must have sufficient qualifications to be approved as trainers.
Objectives of the Ministry for the Vocational Training Law in Mozambique
- Ensure that young people of school age receive comprehensive and technical training in order to prepare them for working life.
- To develop the basic personality skills of young people, in particular by training them to adopt a correct attitude towards formula work.
- Improving the professional skills of workers, career prospects and job mobility.
- To increase the productivity and competitiveness of enterprises.
- Promotion of self-employment.
- Promotion of gender equality by increasing the participation rate of girls and women in vocational training programmes.
The mission of vocational technical education is to ensure that citizens have access to high-quality technical and scientific training that meets the needs of economic and social development.
It is a way to improve the prestige of technical vocational education and training in comparison with academic higher education.